Biology 109 study guide

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Biology 109 study guide

Rochester Institute of Technology A plethora of internal and external variables combine to create individual personalities, behaviors, and psychopathologies supposedly unique to every human being.

The argument of genetic makeup versus environmental influences, however, has researchers working to determine what really shapes us. Some say genotypes control how people think, feel, and behave. Others believe it is the environment alone that is responsible for molding humans into who they are.

There is Biology 109 study guide unknown in this field, but the perusal and review of twin, adoption, and family studies is a significant stepping stone in better understanding Biology 109 study guide topic.

Even today, the sole sculptor of human personality, behavior, and psychopathology remains unknown; modern research indicates that a combination of biology and environment constructs us all.

Studying how genes and our surroundings may or may not form the personalities, behaviors, and psychopathologies of human beings is probably the most obvious way to approach the argument of heredity versus the environment. It is often the tendency of humans to polarize themselves and choose a specific side when a question like this is introduced.

Despite this common inclination, it is probably not the wisest method of deciphering the basis for the three main variables that construct human beings; who is to say that a single factor is the source of all our differences? It is more logical to examine the distinctions between biology and the environment, and to figure out in what ways the two may intertwine to form the singular entities that are our personas.

Because of this palpable meshing together of two variables, it is then plausible to establish what aspects of personality are linked to genes, and what aspects most likely exist due to environmental leverage.

Some tactics that have been used in attempts to figure out the many characteristics of human beings include adoption studies, family studies, and twin studies. A review of different topics in human behavior and psychopathology, from human attitudes to the mental disorder schizophrenia, is a beneficial way to broadly explore the argument.

Loose conclusions may be derived from these studies, but much more investigation needs to be done, both in creating new research projects and in analyzing previous methodologies and results, before this argument has any potential of being resolved. Twin Studies Twin studies are a vastly important tool in dissecting the nature versus nurture argument.

Identical twins, or monozygotic twins, are siblings whose genotypes are duplicates of each other. They are most likely the best indicator of whether biology affects traits and psychopathology in human beings.

Fraternal twins, or dizygotic twins, share exactly half their genes with each other. They are not as optimal as identical twins for deciphering the degrees of genetic influence, but they are a very good basis for comparison for identical twins. Fraternal twins are similar to first-degree relatives, except they are sure to share the exact same age, as do identical twins.

Twin studies usually rely on samples of identical and fraternal twins; if biology has a greater hand than environment, then identical twins should behave or possess psychopathology similar to each other more so than fraternal twins Plomin et al.

This is an example of the heritability coefficient coming into play: This coefficient ought to be higher in identical twins than in fraternal twins. Then again, it is possible for identical twins to express different phenotypes external expression of genetics for the same genotypes genetic makeup.

This is representative of their nonshared environments; even though identical twins possess the same genetic makeup, they may go through different experiences throughout their lives that shape their personality, behavior, and psychopathology in ways that make them unique relative to each other Hughes et al.

Attitudes One particular study sought to determine the heritability of attitudes among twins, as well as the genetic variables, such as intelligence, that could affect attitudes among pairs of twins. A questionnaire was provided to the participants, in which they were asked to rate their personality traits, physical abilities, and physical attractiveness.

They were also asked to note their academic achievements Olson et al.

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The results of the study showed that differences between attitudes of the participants were at least partially correlated to genetic factors. It also showed that attitudes related to self-reported perspectives or to activities were often correlated.

For instance, the survey asked subjects to rate themselves on the trait of sociability. That trait was correlated with 5 out of 6 attitude factors subjects had toward sociability.

Attitudes toward athleticism highly correlated with findings on self-reported athletic abilities. The causal model was expressly supported in these findings, because athletic skill the mediatorfor example, seemed to be linked with attitudes toward athleticism.

Of course, this model is not without its problems: Because of these numerous factors, it is still not possible to always accurately assume direct, singular relations between genetic traits and attitudes Olson et al.

Interestingly, nonshared environment experiences between pairs of twins seemed to be the strongest cause of attitude variances, overshadowing genetic predispositions as well as shared environment experiences Olson et al.

The study did indicate that some nonshared environment experiences were very much connected to attitudes and self-reports of physical characteristics and intelligence Olson et al. This study leads to further questions about nonshared environments: And why are some attitudes apparently rooted in genetics, while others are not?Study Companion Unit I Biology Fall Chapter Bacteria and Archaea Information that you should know, and questions that you should be able to address.

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Biology 109 study guide

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